Software Encryption Level Supported Protocol Supported Ciphers
Android 2.3.7 No SNI 2 Not Supported
Android 4.0.4 Not Supported
Android 4.1.1 Not Supported
Android 4.2.2 Not Supported
Android 4.3 Not Supported
Android 4.4.2 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp521r1 FS
Android 5.0.0 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA ECDH secp521r1 FS
Android 6.0 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Android 7.0 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Baidu Jan 2015 Not Supported
BingPreview Jan 2015 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp521r1 FS
Chrome 49 / XP SP3 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Chrome 57 / Win 7 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Firefox 31.3.0 ESR / Win 7 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Firefox 47 / Win 7 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Firefox 49 / XP SP3 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Firefox 53 / Win 7 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Googlebot Feb 2015 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 ECDH secp521r1 FS
IE 6 / XP No FS 1 No SNI 2 Not Supported
IE 7 / Vista Not Supported
IE 8 / XP No FS 1 No SNI 2 Not Supported
IE 8-10 / Win 7 R Not Supported
IE 11 / Win 7 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
IE 11 / Win 8.1 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
IE 10 / Win Phone 8.0 Not Supported
IE 11 / Win Phone 8.1 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA ECDH secp256r1 FS
IE 11 / Win Phone 8.1 Update R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
IE 11 / Win 10 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Edge 13 / Win 10 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Edge 13 / Win Phone 10 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Java 6u45 No SNI 2 Not Supported
Java 7u25 Not Supported
Java 8u31 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 ECDH secp256r1 FS
OpenSSL 0.9.8y Not Supported
OpenSSL 1.0.1l R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp521r1 FS
OpenSSL 1.0.2e R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Safari 5.1.9 / OS X 10.6.8 Not Supported
Safari 6 / iOS 6.0.1 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Safari 6.0.4 / OS X 10.8.4 R Not Supported
Safari 7 / iOS 7.1 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Safari 7 / OS X 10.9 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Safari 8 / iOS 8.4 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Safari 8 / OS X 10.10 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Safari 9 / iOS 9 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Safari 9 / OS X 10.11 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Safari 10 / iOS 10 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Safari 10 / OS X 10.12 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Apple ATS 9 / iOS 9 R RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp256r1 FS
Yahoo Slurp Jan 2015 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp384r1 FS
YandexBot Jan 2015 RSA 2048 (SHA256) TLS 1.2 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 ECDH secp521r1 FS
(1) Certificate trust is not checked in handshake simulation, we only perform TLS handshake.
(2) Clients that do not support Forward Secrecy (FS) are excluded when determining support for it.
(3) No support for virtual SSL hosting (SNI). Connects to the default site if the server uses SNI.
(4) Only first connection attempt simulated. Browsers sometimes retry with a lower protocol version.
(R) Denotes a reference browser or client, with which we expect better effective security.
(All) We use defaults, but some platforms do not use their best protocols and features (e.g., Java 6 & 7, older IE).

Anthropological analysis of shark bites provides a new standard for forensic science.

Although the fear of sharks has persisted for centuries and shows no sign of cessation, a great white is the least of Floridians’ risks in the water. Now, UF forensic anthropologists and the Florida Museum’s shark expert have joined forces to use sharks’ behavior to help forensic scientists determine cause of death for those who perish at sea. A paper published in the Journal of Forensic Sciences in May 2017 analyzes six cases in which human remains were recovered from the oceans around Florida.

The C.A. Pound Human Identification Laboratory does forensic casework for any agencies and professionals who need the identity and cause of death for human remains. When Allysha Winburn, PhD ’17, and Michala Stock, PhD candidate and alumni fellow, were assigned a case involving a partial skeleton recovered from Florida’s Atlantic Coast, they discovered what appeared to be shark bites on the bones. “I thought, hey, we have a shark specialist here. Let’s call the shark specialist!” recalls Winburn, referring to George Burgess of the Florida Museum of Natural History. Their examination led them to conclude that a bull or tiger shark had likely scavenged on the adrift remains. They applied anthropological analysis to five other cases documented in forensic literature and crafted some guidelines to help investigators and medical examiners determine two things for bodies found in the ocean: Shark attack or no? If shark, predation or scavenging?

Allysha Winburn, PhD candidate, examines remains.

“Sharks seem scary, but in the ocean, you’re more likely to die another way.” – Allysha Winburn

“Sharks seem scary, but in the ocean, you’re more likely to die another way,” Winburn says, echoing the sentiment expressed by shark experts everywhere, including Burgess. With each news report of a shark attack, galeophobia (fear of sharks) surges again, while game fishing of sharks and overfishing of their food supply continue to decimate their populations. It’s no surprise that sharks scavenge on human victims of boating accidents; however, most shark species, with the notable exception of tiger sharks, apparently don’t care for the taste.

Winburn, a former bioarchaeologist, is excited about the prospects of the paper. “I hope the findings will be used whenever shark-scavenged remains are found,” she says. Some hallmarks include parallel gouging in the bones with striations that indicate serrated teeth that indicate a marine carnivore (terrestrial ones usually have smooth teeth), compression fractures that indicate a powerful jaw, and torsion patterning that reflect sharks’ twisting form as they bite.

young woman in lab coat using tool to measure human skull Michala Stock, Alumni Fellow at the Pound Lab, measures a skull.

 

“It feels meaningful to have a very specialized skillset that can be deployed to help people to rest.” – Michala Stock

Both Winburn and Stock are NYU alumni; other than that, their collaboration the nexus of forensic anthropology and shark research was fortuitous. Stock arrived at UF four years ago after completing her Master’s at NYU. A former professional dancer and the daughter of a physician, Stock naturally was intrigued by the human form and how the skeleton shapes physicality. Her dissertation research examines how human sexual dimorphism emerges during childhood development of the skeleton.

Winburn, who arrived at UF seven years ago to switch careers after seeing how forensic anthropologists helped identify Katrina victims, tackles the questions of the aging skeleton from the other end, studying whether physical stress such as intensive exercise exacerbates age-related changes in the hip joint. Her findings suggest that the acetabulum — the pelvis side of the hip joint — is an accurate marker of age.

Together, they’re providing scientific standards for identifying human remains, as part of a relatively small academic community. They are only 400–500 practitioners of forensic anthropology in the United States, explains Winburn. “It’s not glamorous … it’s dirty, thankless and psychologically difficult field,” she says. “So if you have the skillset and mindset to do it — do it.” She points out that many cold-case victims are from minority or marginalized populations. “If we can be the voice for those people, then let’s be the voice for those people,” she says. Stock adds, “It feels meaningful to have a very specialized skillset that can be deployed not only to help people to rest, but to bring information and closure to the people remaining.”

Both are quite familiar with the gravitas of their discipline. After pursuing forensic anthropology, Winburn joined the renewed excavation of the ruins of the World Trade Center in 2007. Eight years later, Stock worked on a later phase of the project. “Every anthropologist and archaeologist from the Tri-State Area was employed to sift through [and identify] those remains,” Winburn says.

The field has been growing thanks to the popularity of Kathy Reichs’ semi-autobiographical novels about forensic anthropologist Temperance Brennan, and her TV counterpart of the same name, nicknamed “Bones.” Winburn is appreciative of pop culture’s portrayal, even if it’s not as glamorous, “if it brings people into the field.” She and Stock are less impressed by the scientific accuracy — or lack thereof — of shark research in recent shark movies. “Sharknado?!” laughs Stock.

Of course, in forensic anthropology, sharks are less the villains and moreso the bystanders — and sometimes, a clue. Thanks in part to Winburn, Stock, and Burgess’ research, the shark standards are being set for forensic science to find out the tooth — er, truth.

See this story as part of a three-story series about the intersections among the studies of humans, sharks, and their relationship.

UF psychologist Lori Knackstedt studies an antibiotic that may cure cocaine addiction.

Lori Knackstedt, professor of psychology, is seven years deep into research that’s yielded some surprising results: in cocaine-addicted rats, an antibiotic reduces their drug-seeking behavior and may prevent relapse. The drug Ceftriaxone appears to increase reuptake of glutamate, a neurotransmitter that regulates dopamine, the crux of the reward system. Knackstedt’s team wonders why.

Her latest paper, published online May 11 in the Journal of Neuroscience, has identified novel mechanisms of how Ceftriaxone (abbreviated “Cef”) reduces cocaine seeking. However, they also found that Cef is not directly increasing gene expression of two key glutamate transporters, GLT-1 and xCT. “We do find that this antibiotic changes things in the brain,” she says. “We’re just not sure how it’s doing it.”

Knackstedt’s fascination with behavior motivates her research. Her neurobiological approach stems from her undergraduate education in biology, where a neuroscience course piqued her interest in how cellular brain processes affect behavior. Now, she’s concerned with the practical aspects of behavior modification. The Ceftriaxone research examines how an antibiotic is disrupting the reward pathway in the nucleus accumbens — the reward center of the brain — and now that they know it’s not acting directly on DNA, the team is one step closer to understanding how Cef reduces excess glutamate that supports continued addiction and encourages patients to relapse.

Next, the team will expand their perspective beyond the nucleus accumbens, but that requires a broader approach: proteomics, a portmanteau of “protein genomics,” involves the use of a mass spectrometer to analyze tissue. An emerging body of research shows that “listen to your gut” has some neuroscience behind it; a reduced gut microbiome has been linked to cocaine relapse, as well as anxiety and depressive disorders. Cephalosporin antibiotics such as Cef have been shown to reduce these behaviors, but their role in the gut–brain axis is not well understood.

Nevertheless, overuse of antibiotics has its own set of side effects. Thus, Knackstedt’s side project is to get the best of both worlds: “I’m interested in developing a drug with reduced side effects to treat addictive behaviors,” she says. “Ceftriaxone is a real contender.”

See this story and learn more about the neurobiology of addiction on Exposure.

UF’s David Blackburn unlocks the frog Tree of Life.

Among UF’s renowned team of extinction experts is David Blackburn, whose appreciation for frogs has led to his work on a groundbreaking new study. A paper published in July in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that although frogs have been around for longer than dinosaurs, most of the world’s 6,700-plus living species of frogs evolved after a mass extinction 66 million years ago made way for new biodiversity.

Perhaps best known among mass extinctions, if not actually the most devastating, is the one that killed the dinosaurs. This event, called the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction (K–T for short, to remind you that “Cretaceous” has a hard C), or more precisely the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction, caused a global die-off of 75 percent. Evolutionarily, these closed doors allowed others to open. Frogs, a highly adaptive type of creature, occupied many new niches, especially those created by a bloom of angiosperms, or flowering plants. Frogs took to the trees, which well suited their reproductive and self-defense needs.

This new analysis shows that the frog family tree’s new crop of branches spread out from the extinction event between the Cretaceous and Paleogene periods — the K–Pg boundary, formerly called K–T — not 100 million years ago. The results were surprising to both the researchers and the scientific community, because previous mitochondrial DNA analysis traced major extant frog lineages to about 35 million years earlier than the K–T extinction, in the middle of the Mesozoic era.

Frogs also took on very different forms, with some retaining the commonly known tadpole stage and others evolving direct development, in which minuscule frogs hatch out of the eggs. They now occupy a wide range of habitats, from semi-arid regions of Africa to the super-humid South American rainforests, from clumps of leaves on the forest floor to the tops of trees.
David Blackburn is the Associate Curator of Herpetology at the Florida Museum of Natural History and an Affiliate Professor of Biology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. He also is part of the Tropical Conservation and Development program, the School of Natural Resources and Environment, and the Center for African Studies.

Visit the Blackburn Lab website.
See this story and photography at Exposure.