Surrounded by salty water, sea snakes sometimes live a thirsty existence. Previously, scientists thought that they were able to drink seawater, but recent research has shown that they need to access freshwater. A new study published in PLOS ONE on Feb. 7 and led by Harvey Lillywhite, professor of biology of the University of Florida, shows that sea snakes living where there is drought relieve their dehydration as soon as the wet season hits, and do so by obtaining freshwater from “lenses” that form on the surface of the ocean during heavy rain—events in which the salinity at the surface decreases enough for the water to be drinkable.

The yellow-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis platurus) is the only reptile in the order Squamata that lives on the open sea. It has one of the largest geographic ranges of any vertebrate species. Given its broad range and seafaring existence, during the dry season (6-7 months at the study site in Costa Rica) it has no access to freshwater. How they survive in regions of drought seems to hinge upon access to freshwater lenses, but little is known about how marine vertebrates react to or consume rainfall. “This study contributes to a fuller understanding of how pelagic sea snakes, and possibly other marine animals, avoid desiccation following seasonal drought at sea,” said Lillywhite.

The researchers captured 99 sea snakes off the coast of Costa Rica (interestingly, the snakes have never been observed in estuaries) and offered them freshwater in a laboratory environment. The team happened to be there just as six months of drought broke and the rainy season began. They found that only 13 percent of snakes captured after the rainfall began accepted the offer, compared to 80 percent of those captured before. The rainfall must have quenched their thirst.

The study continues many years of work by Lillywhite. The present paper was coauthored by Mark Sandfoss, Lillywhite’s current PhD student, Coleman Sheehy, his former student who is now the Collections Manager in Herpetology at the Florida Museum of Natural History, and then-Fulbright visiting scholar Jenna Crowe-Riddell.

“How these animals locate and harvest precipitation is important in view of the recent declines and extinctions of some species of sea snakes,” said Lillywhite. The question remains: How will climate change and its effects on precipitation impact the sea snakes?

Keiwan Ratliff ’18 started his college career in the summer of 1999 but left without a degree when he became a second-round draft pick in the NFL. He readily admits that his focus at the time was more on athletics than academics, something the Cincinnati Bengals recognized when they chose him in 2004. Ratliff played for a number of teams and retired from football when he was injured in 2011. He always knew something was missing and decided to return to school in 2016. As an adult with a full life, he discovered that UF Online offered him the perfect opportunity to finish his studies, this time with a focus on academics. He graduated at age 37 last summer with a degree in sociology.

Ratliff says that he was more focused and engaged that he had been when he first attended UF “because of the fact that I was finally into being a student.”

Ratliff with Dan Mullen during the Gators’ practice on Friday, August 10, 2018 at the Sanders football practice fields in Gainesville, FL / UAA Tim Casey

UF Online is a relatively young program — it turns five this year — and has been making an impressive show in the national rankings. On Jan. 15, U.S. News and World Report announced that UF Online is No. 5 for the best online programs in the country, up from No. 12 in 2018. UF shares the No.5 with the Penn State World Campus and the University of Illinois at Chicago Extended Campus.
UF Online offers 20 majors, and eight of those reside within the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences: anthropology, biology, computer science, criminology, geography, geology, psychology, and sociology.

Evangeline Cummings, UF assistant provost and director of UF Online, notes that the college has been a leader in undergraduate innovation from the beginnings of the program. For instance, she says, “Faculty across Liberal Arts and Sciences departments from biology to physics, from Spanish to criminology, and now, faculty in chemistry are all truly transforming their undergraduate learning experiences to leverage the possibilities of online engagement and welcome students into the UF learning environment, regardless of their location. Only with the top faculty engaged in delivering the most engaging and challenging undergraduate courses and labs will UF continue to thrive as a leader in online programs.”

Advising Dean Joe Spillane emphasizes that Liberal Arts and Sciences is committed to adult and distance learners not just in advising but also in other areas of academic life. Online students may participate in research, senior theses, combined degree programs, ROTC, study abroad, student clubs and organizations, and marching band. Online students are encouraged in every way to be a part of the Gator Nation. To date, Liberal Arts and Sciences has also celebrated the graduations of 1,561 Gators with bachelor degrees earned through the UF Online path.

In 2017, UF Online launched the Employer Pathways Program and now partners with the Walt Disney Company, Walmart and Discover Financial services to support Gators that work at these companies and therefore attend tuition free, if qualified for UF admissions.

A recent report from the Brookings Institution says that online education is the No. 1 trend in driving innovation in higher education. According to the report, “Enrollment in online courses has more than quadrupled in the last 15 years in the U.S. While not as explosive in other countries, online options are gaining traction around the world. Given the increased cost of higher education, online programs are offering not just increased flexibility, but also a major reduction in cost.”

Evangeline says it’s important to note that UF’s online education does not skimp in quality. “Through UF Online,” she says, “UF is demonstrating that a preeminent, research university can modernize its undergraduate experience, expand access to higher education, and deliver engaging and supportive bachelor’s programs fully online without compromising the academic rigor it is well-known for.”

Read the full announcement on UF News.

A classicist chases down the origins of early anatomical description in Homer’s Iliad.

By Barbara Drake

On a Friday afternoon in February, Kenneth Silverman, a PhD student in UF’s Department of Classics, stands in front of an audience of medical doctors and historians at the Southern Association for the History of Medicine and Science in Augusta, Ga., speculating on a gruesome battlefield injury reported to have taken place in Asia Minor more than 3,000 years ago. The victim of the injury was a Trojan soldier named Amphiklos who had charged at an enemy commander, Meges Phyleides, only to be skewered in the thigh by a spear.

As described in lines 313-16 of the Iliad, things didn’t end so well for Amphiklos:
And Phyleides, when he’d spotted Amphiklos running towards him,
was the first to strike, reaching out his spear towards the upper-part of Amphiklos’ leg,
where the thickest human muscle lies: and his tendons (artery?) [νεῦρα] were completely
severed by the point of the spear, and darkness covered his eyes.

Silverman, reads the lines aloud in the thrilling meter of Greek epic poetry, dactylic hexameter, and pauses. He focuses on the bard’s detailed descriptions of anatomy and on a single, telling word: νεῦρα, or neura. Elsewhere in the Iliad, this plural noun is used to mean “tendons,” but in this passage, neura most likely refers to the femoral artery, whose severing brings death within minutes (“darkness covered his eyes”). What did Homer’s apparent confusion of “tendons” and “artery” signify?

etching of soldier bandaging another soldier's arm
Medicine was known and practiced as early as the 4th century BCE. Here, Achilles bandages Patroklos’ arm in the Theban Army.

The answer, Silverman explains, was in the Iliad’s historical context. It was written hundreds of years before Hippocrates and the Hellenistic philosophers who laid the groundwork for the scientific method. In fact, he says, “a lack of discrimination in Homer among terms referring to arteries, veins, sinews, and the spinal cord reflects an early stage of Greek anatomical knowledge.” Although Homer lacked separate terms for tendon and artery, his meticulous descriptions of battle wounds, stabbings, and even beheadings reveal a keen eye for how the human body works — and shed light on the mysteries of pre-Hippocratic thinking.“On balance, Homer is probably simply describing torn tendons,” says Silverman. “Amphiklos’ neura were snapped, and he died.” And that error in identifying the cause of the warrior’s death represents a key stage in early Western thought: “In ancient medicine and popular belief, leading up to early modern times, tendons and nerves were associated with each other,” says Silverman, “both described with the same Greek and Latin word [neuron/nervus], and both thought to contain a person’s ‘life force’ — the vigorous tautness that holds a person together.”Homer’s concept of the neura “was used for centuries before Hellenistic physicians discovered the nervous system and borrowed the term to describe its constituents,” says Silverman. In turn, “many modern medical terms still owe their roots to words that first appear in the Iliad and Odyssey, earning Homer a place in the early history of science and medicine.”

photograph of sculpture of fallen Grecian soldier holding shield
A sculpture of a fallen warrior at the Temple of Aphaia on the Greek island of Aigina.

 

A sculpture of a fallen warrior at the Temple of Aphaia on the Greek island of Aigina.

Silverman is interested in the bard’s shaping of the ancient Greek language, which was in a molten state in the 8th century BCE, much like English was at the time of Shakespeare. Homer’s keen sense of delight in the physical world was transmitted directly to listeners through vivid descriptions and onomatopoeia (words that sound like the things they describe).

One of Silverman’s favorite Homeric words refers to movement and translates to “trembling with leaves.” Another is a complex color word — the “deep blue of depth” — to describe water. And, of course, there is the famous Homeric reference to the “wine-dark sea,” a hard-to-visualize color that Silverman translates as “wine-faced.”

Silverman’s father is a microbiologist at the Cleveland Research Institute, a connection that led to Silverman working as a research student in the mid-2000s at the Cleveland Clinic, where he witnessed a laminectomy surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (removing plaque from around the dura of the spine). Although he wasn’t thinking of the Iliad then, that experience came in handy for translating some of the epic poem’s “excruciating lessons in anatomy.”

photograph of Grecian vase
The Mycenaean Warrior Vase, recovered from the acropolis of Mycenae and dated to the 13th century BCE, is one of the most valued treasures of the National Archaeological Museum in Athens.

As a final example, Silverman recites a passage in which Achilles rampages through the Trojan army and beheads the warrior Deucalion. The lines swell and fall over themselves as Deucalion’s head and helmet fly off together, (de)capped by this arresting detail: “marrow splashed [or, “spurted”] out from the vertebrae / and he lay splayed out on the ground.”
Splashed?

Silverman smiles: “Well, I know from having witnessed a spinal surgery that spinal fluid does not splash out. The medical doctors at the Augusta conference confirmed this. However, doctors have told me that blood from a beheading would gush out — perhaps even twelve feet in the air. Splashed conveys the effect.”

Neuron, nerve, phlebitis: these are some of the established medical terms that have their origins in Homeric verse. As Silverman observes, Homer may not have thought of human anatomy and injuries in a scientific way, “but in his ability to find just the right words to describe these phenomena, he took a first step towards explaining them.”

All of the poems in this article were translated by Kenneth Silverman.

Undergraduate students learn both plant genetics and data analysis in an immersive botany class.

In the fall 2017 semester, 55 students in BOT 2010, an introductory botany course, worked on their green thumbs by growing fire moss (Ceratodon purpureus). The class included a mix of majors, and even those who weren’t budding botanists found something to love in the project. “It was truly a class about science, but it isn’t just for people who are science-related majors,” says Emily Gordon ’21, a biology major who now plans to add a second major in plant science to her path. “It was a really personal, small class and had majors from biology, to landscape design, to journalism, to linguistics.”

Sarah Carey PhD, a graduate student working with botany professor Stuart McDaniel in his lab, developed the idea for the experiment. Typically, the BOT 2010 term projects had involved flowering plants, but this presented a space issue for the lab. Carey, who says she specializes in mosses, realized that “mosses would be the perfect thing because they’re very small, and you could have lots and lots of replication in a very small space — replication is very important for biological experiments,” she says.

 

closeup of gloved hand manipulating tiny moss in petri dish Ceratodon purpureus typically does not exceed 1.3 cm in height.

“From this perspective stems these studies and research that reveal just how complex and marvelous plants actually are.”

“The McDaniel lab has been translating some of the lab’s core research initiatives into research-based experiences for the BOT 2010 students,” says postdoc Lily Lewis, the course instructor working with McDaniel. “The research involves growing tiny moss plants and determining if the sex or population origin of each moss affects how fast the mosses grow.” The students grew their own mosses and compared their rates of growth to the plants’ genetic profile. All groups studied the effect of their plants’ sex on their growth rate, but each group had mosses from a different geographic area. At the end of the semester, they presented their findings in a poster symposium. In the breezeway of Newins–Zigler Hall, excitement filled the cool November air as the students eagerly approached passersby to tell them about their “lil’ mosses.”

young woman using microscope to examine mini mosses
Ceratodon purpureus typically does not exceed 1.3 cm in height.

 

The small, fuzzy green plants have a unique aesthetic that was not lost on the students, who showed a great appreciation for them. “What intrigues me about botany is that it focuses more on plants rather than on how plants can be useful for humans,” says Palmer Crippen ’20, who is double majoring in plant studies and visual studies. “From this perspective stems these studies and research that reveal just how complex and marvelous plants actually are.” Gordon agrees: “I’ve always enjoyed plants, doing gardening on my own time, and just appreciating their aesthetic. I was interested in learning about the science of something I already loved, and possibly doing so in a fun and casual environment.”

Horticulture aside, students also learned data analysis and the programming language R. “We asked, ‘How can students gain skills from us that will be useful in their career paths?’” says Carey. It was a new but crucial achievement for many students. “It was difficult at first to understand what the measurements I received actually meant,” says Daniela Menendez ’21. “Once I grasped the concept, I was able to make more rational assumptions, which led me to consider what a future project with the mosses may look like. Overall, it was an incredible experiment, and I would love to do it all over again.”

University of Florida student Aaron Sandoval, a biology sophomore, has been awarded a Goldwater Scholarship for the 2018-2019 academic year.

Sandoval plans to earn an M.D. and a Ph.D. in Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology before pursuing a research career in regenerative medicine. He is also a UF University Scholar and currently conducts research with Dr. Malcolm Maden, UF biology professor and researcher in the Cancer and Genetics Research Complex.

“I’m proud to have Aaron Sandoval and [honorable mention] Andrew Sack receive recognition from Goldwater for the outstanding records they have compiled at UF,” said Mark Law, director of the UF Honors Program. “They will go on to great things with their research and academic interests.”

The Goldwater Scholarship is the most prestigious undergraduate award in the fields of natural sciences, mathematics and engineering. It is awarded to students who demonstrate outstanding work in these areas and encourages them to continue their career paths.

This year, 1,280 students from 470 institutions were nominated for the scholarship. The Goldwater Foundation awarded 211 nominees with scholarships and named an additional 281 as Honorable Mentions.

Past Goldwater Scholars include other members of the UF Honors Program, Mihael Cudic (2017, electrical engineering), Tiffany Paul (2016, physics), Colin Defant (2015, mathematics) and Lauren McCarthy (2015, chemistry).

Edited from article originally published on UF News.

University of Florida student Aaron Sandoval, a sophomore, has been awarded a Goldwater Scholarship for the 2018-2019 academic year. Andrew Sack, a junior, was recognized with an Honorable Mention. Both are members of the UF Honors Program.

Sandoval is a biology major and plans to earn an M.D. and a Ph.D. in Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology before pursuing a research career in regenerative medicine. He is also a UF University Scholar and currently conducts research with Dr. Malcolm Maden, UF biology professor and researcher in the Cancer and Genetics Research Complex.

young man standing in front of green chalkboard with math equations

Andrew Sack Tim Sofranko

Sack is a mathematics major with plans to earn a Ph.D. in math and teach at a university.

“I’m proud to have Aaron Sandoval and Andrew Sack receive recognition from Goldwater for the outstanding records they have compiled at UF,” said Mark Law, director of the UF Honors Program. “They will go on to great things with their research and academic interests.”

The Goldwater Scholarship is the most prestigious undergraduate award in the fields of natural sciences, mathematics and engineering. It is awarded to students who demonstrate outstanding work in these areas and encourages them to continue their career paths.

This year, 1,280 students from 470 institutions were nominated for the scholarship. The Goldwater Foundation awarded 211 nominees with scholarships and named an additional 281 as Honorable Mentions.

Past Goldwater Scholars include other members of the UF Honors Program, Mihael Cudic (2017, electrical engineering), Tiffany Paul (2016, physics), Colin Defant (2015, mathematics) and Lauren McCarthy (2015, chemistry).

Originally published on UF News.

Sarah Pugliese“I am a graduate student from Rennes 2, and in order to complete my studies and further develop my personal interests and professional aspirations, I am doing an internship at the French department of the University of Florida during the 2018 Spring semester. After a bachelor’s degree in English and Spanish languages, literatures and civilizations, I am currently in my second year of my master’s degree titled ‘Les Amériques,’ a multilingual study of the American continent in its literary, historical, social and cultural dimensions. My internship at UF has been a truly rewarding experience so far. The campus is very pleasant and dynamic, and the students are welcoming and engaging. It is therefore very interesting for me to discover a different academic system than the one I know in France, and to gain a professional experience while being in a research environment. For example, I assist Dr. Blondeau for the sociolinguistic project ‘Le Français à la mesure d’un Continent’ and I help the France-Florida Research Institute to organize presentations and other events. I also joined the French Club and offer individual French classes. The intercultural interactions and the various activities I get to take part in are exciting and I am glad I was able to have this opportunity.”

 rennes “My name is Kéziah. I am a graduate student in Literature at Rennes 2. I pursue my studies with a ‘Master Recherche’ in ‘Littérature Générale et Comparée,’ for which I started a research paper on contemporary literature.

“The classes in the French Department complete and further my education and my knowledge in French literature. The teaching method is pleasant as there is more interaction through small groups of class. I had also the possibility to take classes not directly about French literature, which I felt appreciable as I started my studies with two formations not only centered on French literature. Besides, studying at UF is also beneficial for my research as there are some fields of studies much more developed than in my university and France.

“I also like the campus life very much, the fact that Gainesville is a little student city. As I live on campus, I feel really immersed in the UF atmosphere, it shapes another link to the university and its area compared to my life in Rennes. There are also a lot of international students, and it is very enjoyable and enriching to be part of this wide melting of people.”

Erin Davis

Since joining the program in Fall 2017, I have been teaching French 1134, Accelerated French Review. The transition from raising a family to graduate school has required adapting to a challenging schedule combining teaching and my own academic endeavors. A supportive network of advisors, professors, and experienced teaching assistants has made the process enjoyable. I appreciate the guidance provided by the program, but also benefit from a comfortable degree of autonomy in developing my own teaching style and lesson planning.

In terms of my own academic pursuits, the program has allowed me to be creative. I am delighted to combine my interests in architecture and interiors with French literature, particularly from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. I feel fortunate to have the opportunity to work with extremely knowledgeable professors who share my interests — from Bastide’s Rococo fantasy in La Petite Maison to Zola’s pretentious urban mansions in La Curée.
I look forward to spending a month in Paris this summer conducting research for my thesis, which will focus on the manifestation of domestic architecture and interiors in literature, especially as they relate to the sweeping socio-economic changes during the Second Empire. I am also interested in exploring how various modes of literature treat the relationship between the domestic environment and issues of morality and moeurs.

Corrin Fleming

Before coming to Gainesville, Corrin graduated from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and participated in TAPIF, teaching English. During her time at UF, Corrin has most enjoyed teaching French. She has taught at the 1000 level, and is currently enjoying teaching 2220! She hopes to influence students to open up to a new language and culture, and ultimately to study abroad! As her experiences abroad have been formative, she feels strongly that they will be for her students as well. Corrin has also enjoyed learning about francophone communities around the world, and hopes to visit them in the future! Graduation is set for May 2018, and afterwards she hopes to find a position teaching French. Corrin also loves film and poetry, and has been inspired by her courses to continue writing and translating.

Jennifer Kramer

It is hard to believe that my second year of the MA program is already approaching its end. Reflecting on my experience here at UF in the French department, I have experienced tremendous growth, not only in my studies, but as a teacher. I am currently teaching FRE 1131 (for the third time), and while being a teaching assistant is demanding, it is always rewarding to hear from former students who have decided to study abroad or further their studies in French. I continue to work on my thesis with the help of Dr. Will Hasty, who has given great guidance as a medievalist. My thesis compares two popular revolts of 14th century France and England, as recorded in Froissart’s Chroniques. I hope to attend a conference this summer, as well as a paleography workshop in preparation for a Ph.D. program in history or medieval studies.

Kelly Wiechman

In June 2017, I attended an intensive French language course offered through the Université du Québec à Chicoutimi with financial support from the University of Florida, and in July, I presented a paper in Martinique at the annual Conseil International d’Études Francophones (CIÉF) conference entitled “L’Onomastique française en Caroline du Sud” with financial support from the FFRI. The title of my dissertation is “Refugees and Exiles: Francophones in South Carolina 1562-1810,” and I am planning to graduate this August.

I am currently working as a full-time adjunct at the College of Charleston in Charleston, South Carolina, teaching French at the beginning and intermediate levels. I serve as a member of the College of Charleston’s interdisciplinary Linguistics Studies Minor Steering Committee as well as their interdisciplinary Linguistics Studies Minor Scholarship Committee. Over summer 2018, I will participate in the College of Charleston’s Distance Education Readiness Course, which will enable me to teach courses online. In November 2018, I will be presenting a paper in New Orleans at the American Council of Quebec Studies’ biennial conference titled “The Acadians in South Carolina.”

Portuguese has changed the trajectory of Laura Henschel’s life in ways she never thought possible. The struggle to learn this beautiful language has given her much, from enduring friendships to career skills to life lessons. “Learning a second language is the best thing I have done in my life,” Laura writes.
Laura started learning Portuguese at the age of 16, when she spent a high-school year in the Northeast of Brazil as a Rotary Youth Exchange student. She not only learned this new skill — the ability to communicate with over 200 million people in their language — but also broadened her view of the world. portrait of sharply dressed womanShe decided that her goal in college would be to get to know more about others.

When Laura entered UF, she got involved with the Portuguese conversation club Bate Papo — which is where she met Andréa Ferreira. Andréa convinced Laura to take just one class with her in order to keep practicing her Portuguese, and the rest just fell into place. She began taking more and more courses, getting involved in Portuguese-to-English tutoring, in BRASA, the Brazilian Student Association at UF, and in other activities and events involving Portuguese. Now, Laura is pursuing a second degree in Portuguese Studies, along with her degree in Public Relations.

This spring, Andréa offered Laura the opportunity to join a brand-new project — a partnership between UF and AcheiUSA, the largest Brazilian newspaper in the U.S. Along with Giovanna Breda Kubota, a Brazilian student studying journalism at UF, they began a biweekly column for the newspaper detailing their complementary perspectives of life at UF. Their columns range from highlighting Brazilian organizations on campus, to interviewing students, to reporting on the Admissions Office, to living in Gainesville, with more topics to come.

screencapture of online publicationPortuguese has made Laura a more understanding communicator — as a professional, as a student, and as a human being. She feels fortunate to be able to share a connection with Portuguese speakers, to quite literally “speak their language” and understand their culture and way of life. Her language skills also improve her prospects in the job market, as several international companies are now possibilities for her future. In addition, learning Spanish, and possibly other Romance languages, has become a much more attainable goal.

Eventually, Laura hopes to use her voice in support of projects she feels passionate about, like women’s rights in Brazil, Portuguese-language communications in the media, and the message of diversity and inclusion for immigrants.

Global Citizen

Nicole Wang ’21 just completed her first semester at UF and is committed to the pre-med track, even though she knows it’s not going to be easy. “During our preview session, we were asked how many people wanted to be doctors, and half of the room raised their hand. It was very intimidating,” she says. “But if I am going to spend so much time doing one thing, I want it to be something I completely love. I can’t imagine myself doing anything else but being in the medical field. I am extremely passionate about it and women’s health.” She is correct in her estimation — each year, 2,000 incoming freshmen indicate that they want to be pre-med, and only 425 to 450 actually matriculate to medical school.

Born in Canada, Wang moved with her family to China when she was seven before relocating to the United States. She spends summers doing mission work in Brazil and has volunteered in the Dominican Republic and Nicaragua. She also regularly volunteered at Tampa General Hospital. She is fluent in Portuguese and speaks Spanish and French — and she accomplished all this before graduating from high school.

portrait of friendly young womanNicole Wang played with med kits when other girls played with dolls. Gigi Marino

“Coming to UF has been the best decision I’ve ever made. Shands is such a great teaching hospital, and the med school is competitive and amazing.”

Wang, who is half Chinese and half Brazilian, travels each summer to her mother’s home city, Porto Alegre, south of São Paulo. She says that she noticed conditions becoming worse, especially for poor children. “So, my mom and I found an orphanage to help,” she says. “We taught them hygiene and English. Knowing English is the way out of poverty for a lot of children.” When they travel, they bring suitcases filled with educational materials that they leave behind. Even after becoming a doctor, Wang intends to make philanthropy a part of her repertoire. “It has always been a part of my routine,” she says. “I can’t imagine my life without it.”

Wang has wanted to be a doctor since she was seven. She says that while most other girls her age were playing with Barbie dolls, she was playing with medical kits. “My mom would pretend to have an injury so I could fix her up,” she says.

Here in Gainesville, Wang volunteers for internal medicine at Shands Hospital. “Coming to UF has been the best decision I’ve ever made,” she says. “Shands is such a great teaching hospital, and the med school is competitive and amazing.” She also pledged Delta Zeta. “My high school graduating class had 56 people in it. UF is more like a little city than a school. Joining a sorority makes it smaller.”


To support the people, program, or research featured in this story, please visit

<!–

Political Science Fund

–>

Dean’s Fund for Excellence